1. Tapping
  2. Damage to the tap - possible causes and their elimination
  3. Threading with dies
  4. Rating of the best sets of taps and dies for 2020
  5. Instead of an epilogue

Rating of the best sets of taps and dies for 2020

Rating of the best sets of taps and dies for 2020

Taps and dies constitute such a special group of tools that may be needed at any time of work. Thanks to their kits, it is possible to repair jammed internal threads and torn off bolts, as well as restore single samples of nuts and studs, which can be difficult to buy in retail. Due to the fact that dies and taps have different designs, methods of application, areas of use, they should be considered in detail separately.


Among the existing detachable connections, threaded ones are considered especially reliable. At one time (before the first use of the screw-cutting lathe in the 17th century), each pair of nut-bolt was made individually and they could not be interchangeable. In the 19th century, humanity began to apply special standards for the application of internal threads. It can be carried out both with a machine tool and with taps.

Design features

A modern tap without fail has the following design elements:

  • The intake (aka the head) part in the form of a hollow cone, necessary to start the formation of the cutting profile;
  • Multiple lateral grooves (usually two to six) that will provide lubrication and chip ejection;
  • Calibrating element, in the form of an elongated cylinder, which will complete the formation of the profile;
  • The shank responsible for attaching the tap to the chuck or turn signal holder.

When making a cross-cut, the formation of the groove will depend on two of its surfaces: the front edge of the cutting tooth of the tap and the back of this tooth.

Chip flutes can be of the following types:

  • Single Radius - they are used on calibration instruments and are a circular arc cross-section;
  • Straight-line - used for applying nut threads and the cross-section has the shape of the letter "U";
  • Mixed - the back groove is in the shape of an arc, and the front groove is in a straight line (most universal tools are performed according to this scheme).

Unique taps characteristics

The main types of taps have only their inherent exclusive characteristics. Knowing these characteristics, you can always choose the right tap model:

  • Threaded pitch;
  • Profile and with its height;
  • Maximum profile height;
  • Threaded diameter outside;
  • Intake part length;
  • Backing length;
  • Intake cone corner.

IMPORTANT! It is worth remembering that any taps are subdivided into left-hand and right-hand thread devices.

Types by application

According to the area of ​​their use, taps are divided into:

  • Locksmiths - they have a square shank, used by hand. They come complete with a collar, through which rotation and threading occurs. The set contains two taps, slightly different from each other in diameter, and where each removes only its own share of the allowance from the surface of the hole being machined. The tools in such a set differ in the number of lines that are engraved on the shank or stamped in the same place (the most accurate one is indicated by three lines, the intermediate one - two, and the rough one - the only one).
  • Machine (machine) or machine-hand - they can perform cutting both in manual mode and on industrial equipment (for these purposes, drilling / turning machines and even large industrial processing centers are required). In contrast to the aforementioned ones, these taps have a shortened intake element, since the alignment of the axes is ensured by the machine. They are made of high-quality tool steel, have thermal stability, and are not very susceptible to mechanical pressure.
  • Nut - they are used in automatic machines for threading inside nuts. By design, they are distinguished by their longer shank, which has a smooth cylindrical shape. Upon completion of the thread turning, one after another, the nuts move to the shank, waiting there for the end of work throughout the series. After the end of serial production, the shank comes out of the chuck, and all the resulting nuts fall into the receiving tray.

Differences in types by design features

Taps by their own design can be very different from each other:

  • Grooved - they are used when interacting with soft / tough materials and therefore have very small grooves (tough materials can be called light metal alloys and several types of low-carbon and high-alloy steels);
  • Screw - grooves are located in them along an upward spiral, through which they carry out a thread inside blind holes on production machines / automatic equipment;
  • Stepped - the working element is divided into two sectors, the first cuts, and the second smoothes;
  • Combined - a drill is installed right in front of the lead-in element, during one approach a hole is drilled and a thread is applied there;
  • Broaches - they are needed for threading through holes by means of a lathe;
  • "Bell" type - they are needed for making threads with increased diameters (up to 0.5 meters) and include several cutting systems that are fixed in a common frame.

There are also exclusive designs, which are due to special production tasks.

Types of applied threads

Individual taps are required for each thread size and type. They are not interchangeable and neither are threaded. The main types can be distinguished:

  • Metric - denoted by the letter "M" is a triangular isosceles profile, where the apex angle is 60 degrees, and its dimensions are determined in millimeters;
  • Inch - denoted by the letter "W", its profile is a pointed angle of 55 degrees, and the diameter is displayed in inches and as well as fractions, and the number of turns per inch is used as a pitch mark;
  • Pipe - its difference is the different inclination of the rear / front parts of the profile, which ensures a guaranteed connection, and also prevents self-unwinding.

Manufacturing materials

All taps during operation endure large mechanical / thermal influences, and the tool itself must cut a large number of holes at this time. Accordingly, high quality tool steels are required for production materials:

  • Manual models - U10A or U12A - high-carbon steel types;
  • Machine models - high-speed steel PM5;
  • For automatic machines of increased productivity - hard alloys with increased heat resistance.

IMPORTANT! However, such metals have one major drawback - if damaged, the tap for threading cannot be freely drilled / removed.

Technological process for threading

In total, it includes four main stages:

  • The preparatory stage is the selection of a drill of the required diameter and the implementation of drilling, while the drill cannot be prevented from leaving. Before that, it must be sufficiently sharpened, otherwise the material will overheat, and the reliability of the thread will decrease. The hole is countersunk, and in the case of a blind hole, a small allowance should be reported in relation to the depth;
  • Cutting itself - at this stage, all the movements performed are carried out measuredly, clearly and accurately, you need to avoid missing lines, but apply all three in sequence from rough to precise;
  • Cleaning stage - here they clean the through holes with a wire brush, and deaf ones - with air under pressure or with a construction vacuum cleaner;
  • Verification stage - here it is necessary to screw the screw into the existing hole, while the entry should turn out smoothly along the thread, without unnecessary effort and any distortions.

Damage to the tap - possible causes and their elimination

The tool in question, of course, is not entirely durable, prone to banal obsolescence and natural wear and tear. The most common damage cases:

  • Skewing;
  • Working opening too narrow;
  • Excessive forces applied by the operator to the gate;
  • Failure to comply with the reverse half-turn rules at the end of each full scroll.

If any of the above cases occurs, then there is no need to rush and try to drive the thread faster or try to skip the tap from the set. All this can result in temporary losses, and therefore all extraction operations should be done slowly.

Threading with dies

Bolting is the most popular type of fastener. However, even super-quality threads will deteriorate over time. And here there are two ways - you can turn to a professional locksmith for help or apply the thread yourself. In any case, for this operation, a set of punches or dies will be needed - this is how hand tools are called for applying external threads. By means of them, it is possible to quickly restore worn-out hardware or to manufacture the required part for an already existing stud / bolt.

Classification of lers (dies) by design

The first characteristic that distinguishes one die from another is the body structure. According to this indicator, they are divided into:

  • The dies are rounded - their body is a full-fledged ring through which a workpiece is passed. Due to the increased rigidity, as a result, a high-quality spiral profile is formed on an excellent thread;
  • Sliding dies (sticks) - they consist of 2 elements and are intended for the manufacture of threaded areas of different diameters;
  • Split dies - their threaded diameter along the run can be from 0.1 - 0.3 millimeters, and therefore they must be used when applying inaccurate threads.

Classification by thread orientation

On this basis, the dies can be subdivided:

  • Left - they are rarely used and especially in specific auto parts, rotation mechanisms, and in cases where the right thread can unwind;
  • Right-hand - the most popular direction, it is used on screws, bolts, axles.

Profile classification

By profile, dies can be:

  • Metric - have a metric thread, marked with the letter "M", followed by a number indicating the diameter in millimeters. Sizes up to 68 mm are standard, with each standard corresponding to a large or small step (in the Russian Federation this is regulated by GOST 9740);
  • Cylindrical pipe - marked with the Latin letter "G", their thread is measured in inches (relative to the metric system 1 inch = 2, 54 mm);
  • Tapered pipe - they will be marked with the letter "K", are used to obtain a threaded surface in the form of a cone in especially critical joints that are installed in places where elements are operated under high pressure (for example, working units of production machines);
  • Trapezoidal - their thread section is an equilateral trapezoid. They are used in power couples, where rotation is converted into translational movements (for example, a nut and a lead screw in a metalwork and machine vice).

Die holders

In order to cut, one die will not be enough. It is also necessary to use an assistant device for holding and clamping the stick - it is called a die holder. One such device is immediately designed for several sizes - from small to large. The die is installed inward and held in place with a screw.

Manufacturing material

For the production of die-cutters, high-speed steel P18 or P6M5 is used as standard. They are good in terms of "price / quality", have an extended operating period and do an excellent job with minor repairs and household work.

Die-cutting technology

Basically, the principle of action is quite simple, however, and there are some nuances here:

  • At the preparation stage, you need to grind off a small dullness at the end of the part with a file (the tool will cut better);
  • Firmly fix the die in the holder, make sure that it does not turn;
  • Perform two full turns, slightly pressing the hand on the bench;
  • After the tool has entered the part, you need to perform 2-3 full turns and one action half a turn back - this way the application is more efficient.

IMPORTANT! It is necessary to constantly monitor the position of the holder in relation to the workpiece - it must always be perpendicular in the absence of inclination!

Features of the choice of a set of dies and taps

First of all, you need to clearly separate all the tools and navigate the set. There are professional versions of the kits, and there are also amateur ones designed for household use.

First you need to decide on the type of dies / taps. For example, which system is assumed for the preferred use - inch or metric. In Russia, the metric system is more often used. Here you can visually identify the levers of this system by the sign of their conical shape and the established metric thread pitch. It is also worth considering the fact that the threads of the scraper have a triangular profile - this can be seen from the last turns of the blades. Thus, using such a tool, the nut will be able to screw onto the restored thread.

The accuracy of the required cutting will be achieved by means of split dies, and if precise cutting is not needed, then it makes sense to take a set with solid punches. Of course, most professionals advise purchasing a set that contains all the existing types of cutting.

Separately, it is necessary to remember the cases - the sets can be in convenient plastic or wooden boxes, they allow you to comfortably transport the entire tool. And if necessary, it is easy to use it.

Regarding the material of manufacture - in this case, there is no need to philosophize much - the tool, by definition, is made of high-strength high-carbon steel.However, you should still avoid outright counterfeit - usually Asian "know-name" manufacturers make their sets from soft metals.

Rating of the best sets of taps and dies for 2020

Hand kits

3rd place: 5545 ERMAK M3-M10

An excellent and inexpensive set of domestic production, perfect for household needs. Although the toolbox is small, it can handle the most common household tasks. The case is made of plastic, it has foam rubber recesses for storing the tool.

Number of items14
Case materialPlastic
Total weight, gram600
Manufacturer countryRussia
Dimensions, millimeters15x20x15
Price, rubles1300
5545 ERMAK M3-M10
  • Budgetary price;
  • Durable tool making material;
  • Sufficient functionality for everyday tasks.
  • A fragile case.

2nd place: Stayer Master 28020-h24

An advanced kit from a foreign manufacturer. It is quite capable of coping not only with everyday tasks, but can also be used for simple minor repairs of auto parts. Supplied in a metal case, tool compartments made of plastic.

Number of items24
Case materialMetal
Total weight, gram1200
Manufacturer countryNorway
Dimensions, millimeters30x20x30
Price, rubles2100
Stayer Master 28020-h24
  • Advanced functionality;
  • Adequate price;
  • Dual measurement system (inches and meters).
  • Inconvenient case.

1st place: "Berger" BG31TDS

In many ways, a universal kit, because it can be used both for the locksmith and for the automotive part. Most of the dies and taps for standard threads are present in it. Excellent quality of sharpening allows you not to use excessive force when working. The case is made of steel, has a strong lock.

Number of items31
Case materialMetal
Total weight, gram1300
Manufacturer countryDenmark
Dimensions, millimeters30x20x30
Price, rubles3400
Berger »BG31TDS
  • Excellent slicing quality;
  • Reliable case;
  • Durable tool material.
  • In practice, there is no M12x1.25 die (it is not in the photo, but it is in the description).

Sets for machine tools

3rd place: ZUBR Professional 28110-H24

Like most professional sets, this one is distinguished by a large number of tools in a set, a wide range of their application, and the use of several marking systems at once. All tools are made of high-carbon, high-strength steel and are capable of withstanding the maximum loads when installed in machine tools.

Number of items24
Case materialMetal
Total weight, gram900
Manufacturer countryRussia
Dimensions, millimeters30x15x20
Price, rubles4700
ZUBR Professional 28110-H24
  • Uses two systems - pipe and metric;
  • Durable metal tool making.
  • Not identified (for its segment).

2nd place: SKRAB 33895

This set is distinguished by a convenient arrangement of objects in the case - taps at the bottom, dies on top. There is a special gate with embossed handles to hold the tool under the internal thread. A universal ram holder for all sizes is also available. Users note the high quality of cutting, both with machine and manual operation.

Number of items45
Case materialPlastic
Total weight, gram1100
Manufacturer countryTaiwan
Dimensions, millimeters30x20x30
Price, rubles9700
SKRAB 33895
  • Convenient arrangement of items in the case;
  • Universal holder for lers;
  • Complete with a special collar.
  • High price.

1st place: Matrix 773110

Maximum professional set for 110 items. Able to perform absolutely any work, both in household and production terms. Fully suitable for machining parts made of all materials - aluminum, cast iron, steel and copper. All tools are made of innovative ultra-strong cutting steel 9XC.

Number of items110
Case materialPlastic
Total weight, gram1500
Manufacturer countryTaiwan
Dimensions, millimeters50x30x50
Price, rubles11000
Matrix 773110
  • Actual price / quality ratio;
  • The tool is made of the latest steel;
  • Practical versatility and a lot of functionality.
  • Not found.

Instead of an epilogue

In the course of market analysis, it was found that the Russian buyer still prefers foreign versions of the kits. This is due to their wider functionality, as well as additional equipment. At the same time, users from Russia try to make most of their purchases via the Internet. The reason for this is the high cost of a really good kit, in connection with which it is required to generate some financial savings, which allows you to do online shopping.